At the time there were many who felt that such talk was that of a weakling, and this was true of Dönitz's commander, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder. The two constantly fought for funding priorities within the Navy, while at the same time fighting with Hitler's friends like Hermann Göring who received too much attention. Raeder's attitude is somewhat confusing, notably as it appears he didn't believe the German fleet of capital ships was of much use, commenting at one time that all they could hope to do is die valiently. Dönitz had no such fatalism.
Role in World War II
When the war started in 1939, earlier than most had expected, Dönitz's U-boat force included only 50 boats, many of them shorter range types. Nevertheless he made due with what he had, constantly harassed by Raeder and Hitler calling on him to dedicate boats to military actions to operate against the British fleet directly. These operations were generally unsuccesful, while the other boats continued to do well against Dönitz's primary targets of merchant shipping.
By 1941 the supply of the Type VII had improved to the point where operations were having a real effect on the British wartime economy. Although production of merchant ships shot up in response, improved torpedoes, better boats and much better operational planning led to increasing numbers of "kills." In December the US joined the war and he immediately planned for Operation Drumbeat against the eastern coast shipping, which was carried out the next month with superb results.
By the end of 1942 the supply of Type VII boats had improved to the point where he was finally able to conduct mass attacks, which became known as "das Rudel," the "wolfpack." Shipping losses shot up tremendously, and there was serious concern for a while about the state of British fuel supplies.
During 1943 the war in the Atlantic turned against the Germans, but Dönitz continued to push for more U-boat construction and technological development. At the end of the war the Nazi submarine fleet was by far the most advanced in the world, and late war examples such as the Type XXI U-boat served as models for Soviet and American construction after the war.
Dönitz was also chosen by Adolf Hitler as his successor, a choice that shows how distrustful Hitler had become of Göring and Himmler in the final days of the War in Europe. After Hitler committed suicide on 30 April 1945, Dönitz became the final German Führer, ruling until the final surrender on 8 May. He devoted most of his efforts to trying to ensure that German troops surrendered to the Americans and not to the Soviets, since the Germans feared that the Soviets would torture or kill them in revenge for how they had treated the Soviets.
Following the war, he was tried as a war criminal in the Nuremberg Trials. Unlike many of the other defendants, he was not charged with crimes against humanity, and historians are in general agreement that Dönitz did not participate in and had no knowledge of the Holocaust. However, he was charged with being involved with the waging aggressive war, conspiracy to wage aggressive war, and crimes against the laws of war. Specifically, he was charged with waging unrestricted submarine warfare and with issuing an order after the Laconia incident not to rescue survivors from ships attacked by submarine.
As one of the witnesses in his defense, Dönitz produced an affidavit from Admiral Chester Nimitz who testified that the United States had used unrestricted warfare as a tactic in the Pacific and that American submarines did not rescue survivors in situations where their own safety was in question. Despite this he was found guilty of "crimes against peace", for which he was sentenced to, and served, 10 years in Spandau Prison, East Berlin. Of all the defendants at Nuremberg, the verdict against Dönitz was probably the most controversial; the Soviet judge actually voted for his acquittal on all charges, and Dönitz always maintained that he did nothing that his Allied counterparts weren't doing.
His memoirs, entitles Ten Years and Twenty Days, were published in Germany in 1958 and translated into English the next year. Late in life, his reputation was rehabilitated to a large extent, and when he died in 1980, scores of his former servicemen and foreign naval officers came to pay their respects.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Alfred_North_Whitehead".